ATCM
Antarctic Treaty
Electronic Information Exchange System

Party: South Africa
2018/2019 Annual Information
Forward Plans
Science Activities in Previous Year
Scientific Information - Science Activities in Previous Year
Project Name/Number: Analysis of the space weather events of 6-10 September 2017 and its impact on aviation
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: R. N NDANGANENI
Main Activity/ Remarks: The study is aimed at guiding South Africa towards being in a position to identify, assess and facilitate decision making with respect to space weather impacts on aviation, and the ICAO recommendations
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Assessment of the synoptic variability of the Antarctic marginal ice zone with in situ observations
Discipline: Glaciology
Principal Investigator: E. DE JONG
Main Activity/ Remarks: The objective of this study was to compare sea-ice observations from the SA Agulhas II to high resolution satellite imagery when transecting the MIZ. Therefore, enhancing our understanding of the relationship between the MIZ and synoptic events. The location of the ship was tracked, allowing a more quantitative description of spatial sea-ice characteristics, specifically focusing on the MIZ edge. High resolution remotely sensed data were used to retrieve sea-ice properties. The Antarctic sea ice conditions were investigated to evaluate the quality of satellite retrievals with respect to on-board observational estimates, based on the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol. To maximize the retrieval of information from previous cruises not specifically dedicated to sea-ice observations, an algorithm was developed to automatically retrieve sea ice concentration from still images and videos. This method can be used to obtain quantitative sea-ice data from vessels of opportunity without the need to have trained personnel on-board.
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Project Name/Number: Dosimetry at commercial airline altitudes
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: M.G Mosotho
Main Activity/ Remarks: Scientists have been assessing the exposure of crewmembers and passengers of commercial airlines to ionizing radiation ever since it was identified as a health risk in the early 1960s. Progress has been made over the years in measuring and monitoring radiation at flight altitudes. The interaction of ionizing radiation with cellular DNA might lead to harmful effects such as cancer. To monitor and measure the radiation exposure of commercial airline crewmembers and passengers, a very small and lightweight active dosimeter known as HARM, an acronym for High Altitude Radiation Monitor, was developed and built. This instrument uses a silicon semiconductor sensor capable of measuring neutral and charged particles during a flight. Measurements obtained during a flight have been shown to exceed the limits of ground level workplaces and consequently, radiation exposure could be harmful to crewmembers and passengers. Therefore, monitoring changing radiation parameters in space and time is essential.
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Project Name/Number: Highlights about the performances of different storm-time TEC modelling techniques
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: J.C. UWAMAHORO
Main Activity/ Remarks: A statistical evaluation of storm-time total electron content (TEC) modelling techniques over various latitudes of the African sector and surrounding areas is presented. For each selected global positioning satellite (GPS) receiver station, three different storm-time models based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis, non-linear regression analysis (NLRA) and Artificial neural networks (ANN), were implemented. Storm-time TEC derived from GPS measurements over selected receiver stations were used to develop and validate the models. The models' estimates were compared with TEC provided by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI - 2016) and statistics are presented. A statistical analysis revealed that ANN provides more accurate predictions than other modelling techniques. However, strengths and weaknesses of each model are provided.
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Project Name/Number: Investigate ionizing radiation in the troposphere using ground-based Neutron Monitor, ACE satellite and RBSP satellite data for aviation radiation forecasting
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences , Astrophysics
Principal Investigator: G. THAGANYANA
Main Activity/ Remarks: The study investigate the correlation between Neutron Monitor counts rates and solar wind speed and proton density from both Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite, and radiation belt density from the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) satellites, during the coronal mass ejection (CME) events and quiet time. If the correlation exists, then it may be possible to use Neutron Monitor data in the future for the forecast the timing and level of ionizing radiation in the troposphere and the arrival time of the CME.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: INVESTIGATION OF PC5 PULSATIONS DURING A TRINNI EVENT
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences , Atomic/molecular physics
Principal Investigator: JUDY STEPHENSON
Main Activity/ Remarks: SuperDARN radars are coherent HF radars and so they receive reflections from field aligned irregularities in the ionosphere. Due to the fact that the ionosphere has finite conductivity, the motion of the field line can be seen in the back and forth movement of the plasma (seen as alternating blue (positive) and yellow (negative) velocity bands) in the Doppler velocity data of the radar. HF radar observations are of central importance here as they provide good spatial resolution of the resonances in very large field of view. The Pc5 pulsation events can be monitored in the high-latitude ionosphere by SuperDARN and ground-based magnetometer array in CARISMA stations that are in the same range of magnetic latitude, when the interplanetary magnetic field of the solar wind is northward. These two instrument types complement each other. The line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the radar can be used to measure ULF oscillations in the F-region plasma flow associated with Pc5 field line resonance. Ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations have been observed for many years in magnetometer data and are endemic within the magnetosphere. Spectral analysis of the Pc5 pulsations from SuperDARN and magnetometers has been performed. This will help in determining the characteristic features of pulsations during northward interplanetary magnetic field intervals. This project will involve the candidate to investigate known TRINNI events. (S)he will have to download the appropriate SuperDARN and magnetometer data for the events and perform Fourier analysis of them to determine the presence, or lack of, Pc5 pulsations. This will involve some basic programing and plotting using either Matlab, Python or IDL.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Investigation of TIDs using SANAE SuperDARN radar
Discipline: Astrophysics , Astronomy
Principal Investigator: T. ATILAW
Main Activity/ Remarks: Traveling ionospheric disturbances are an ionospheric manifestation of atmospheric gravity waves that occur in the neutral atmosphere. There are different Source of mechanisms for TIDs, such as auroral electrojet (Joule heating and Lorentz force), solar terminators (sunrise and sunset solar terminators), energetic particle precipitation, magnetic storms, tropospheric weather and mountain turbulence. TIDs appear in power spectra of SuperDARN radars as spatially localized enhancements and as quasi-periodic fluctuations in Doppler velocities and reflection heights. SuperDARN is a network of HF radars designed to study plasma convection and plasma density irregularities in the E and F-regions of the ionosphere at high and midlatitudes. The network consists of 35 low-power HF radars, 23 radars in the Northern hemisphere and 12 in the Southern hemisphere, with a collaboration of 10 countries. South Africa is one of the collaborating countries with HF radar installed at the SANAE IV station in Antarctica. There haven't been many studies done on TIDs observed in the southern polar hemisphere, in particular, by the SANAE HF radar. This paper aims to investigate TIDs events observed by SANAE SuperDARN radar in more details. The investigation includes propagation direction, frequency and wavelength of the TIDs events and also possible source of mechanisms of the TIDs events. For this study we will use data from SANAE radar and other radars which have field of view that overlap with SANAE radar.
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Project Name/Number: Marginal Ice Zone Phytoplankton Phenology in CMIP5 Models
Discipline: Earth and atmospheric sciences - other, Biological sciences - other
Principal Investigator: M.C Hugue
Main Activity/ Remarks: The study focuses on the role sea-ice plays in seasonal cycle of phytoplankton growth in the Southern Ocean. In particular, it will summarize a detailed study of 11 CMIP5 Earth System Models and their representation of phytoplankton phenology in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Atlantic Southern Ocean. The study revealed that models could be grouped according to two dominant controls on their simulated phenology, namely the location of the ice edge and degree of stratification present in the water column. This grouping allows us to investigate not only the mechanisms responsible for the major model biases, but also the response of phytoplankton, now and in the future, to a complex physical environment characterized by strong ice-ocean-atmosphere coupling. This work was sponsored by the SANAP grant TRAIN-SOPP: Southern Ocean Primary Production in the Earth System (2015-18).
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Project Name/Number: Mesoscale neutral wind variability near auroral arcs measured using Fabry-Perot Interferometers
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: N. NGWANE
Main Activity/ Remarks: Central to this study is the investigation of the mesoscale neutral wind behaviour near auroral arcs in the E region upper atmosphere using Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs). FPIs measure the Doppler shift and broadening of the green-line emission from which neutral velocities and temperatures can be derived respectively. The Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) which is an enhanced FPI provides an all sky image of the neutral winds. SDIs are currently located in Alaska, Antarctica and Svalbard island. The study seeks to understand the E region neutral wind response to the driving force caused by the enhanced electric field upon the occurrence of an aurora. Subsequently, it is intended to study the ion-neutral coupling in the E layer focussing on energy dissipation in the form of Joule heating. This work expands from an initial single lication (Kosch et al., 2010) where Scanning Doppler Imager (SDI) data from Mawson, Antarctica, was used. The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data set is used as a source of ion velocities to estimate the electric field.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Novel radar and optical observations of black auroras in the upper atmosphere
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences , Atomic/molecular physics , Astrophysics
Principal Investigator: A. NEL
Main Activity/ Remarks: Black auroras are regions of the sky where auroras are expected but do not appear. They are observed either as small patches or black rings that drift, mainly eastward; or as thin black arcs with specific motions and vortices. Black auroras, whilst commonly observed at high latitudes, remain a mysterious part of our space environment whose mechanism is still unknown. Black auroras are visible thanks to instruments like EISCAT, the world’s most sophisticated incoherent scatter radar system, located in Finland, Norway and Sweden. EISCAT can study a wide range of geophysical phenomena in the ionosphere, including black auroras. For this research, the EISCAT electron energy data is combined with optical data to shed light on this mysterious auroral phenomenon. The study is sought to underst the physical mechanisms driving ionospheric and plasmaspheric electrodynamics over the African region
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Optically observations of sprites over southern Africa: The journey so far
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: S. NNADIH
Main Activity/ Remarks: Sprites are the optical signatures of an electrical discharge in the mesosphere that are triggered by large lightning strikes associated with active convective thunderstorms. Since their discovery in the late 1980s, Sprite has been observed extensively around the world but much so less in Africa. This paper presents the results of the series of ground-based observations of sprites during the summer of 2015/2016, 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 in South Africa. The occurrence these events were compared to the lightning location and peak amplitudes determined from the lightning detection network operated by the South African Weather Service (SAWS). The results show that the charge moment change associated with most of the events agree with the dialectic breakdown of the mesosphere.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2015   To:  31 Mar 2018
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Progress in the Gondwana Amalgamation and Correlation Project
Discipline: Geology , Geomorhology, Geoheritage
Principal Investigator: G.H. GRANTHAM
Main Activity/ Remarks: The amalgamation component focuses on a tectonic collisional model proposed in 2008. Withion this studies focus on the age, chemistry and structure of syn-tectonic intrusions, the chemistry of the basement host rocks specifically using radiogenic isotopes to finger print different crustal blocks and the post collisional uplift history using Ar-Ar data on micas and amphiboles . The fragmentation component focusses on Jurassic dykes, specifically the chemistry age and structure.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
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Project Name/Number: Radar observations of the thermosphere
Discipline: Astronomy , Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: M.J. KOSCH
Main Activity/ Remarks: A comparison of overshoot modelling with observations of polar mesospheric summer echoes at radar frequencies 56
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Seasonal depletion of the sub-surface iron reservoir in the sub-Antarctic zone of the Southern Ocean
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences , Oceanography , Marine biology
Principal Investigator: T.N. MTSHALI
Main Activity/ Remarks: Iron availability in the Southern Ocean limits primary productivity with implications for the overall extent and efficiency of the biological carbon pump. Diagnosing the climate sensitivity of dissolved iron supply requires an improved understanding of the relative role of various input pathways (e.g. winter mixing, diapycnal diffusion, transient mixed layer entrainment and surface water iron recycling). This study utilises multiple occupations of a station in the sub-Antarctic Southern Ocean, spanning winter (July) to late summer (February), to address the seasonal evolution of dissolved iron profiles, providing insight into the dominant supply mechanisms of dissolved iron to surface water production. Results highlight the seasonal decrease observed in the subsurface dissolved iron reservoir (mean euphotic depth (82 m) to maximum winter mixed layer depth (200 m), which is in excess of that which is required to support estimated surface water production. Results suggest an important vertical physical supply of dissolved iron to surface waters, over and above mixed layer remineralisation to sustain productivity through to late summer. A wind induced mixed layer deepening event in February that coincides with an increase in phytoplankton biomass is indicative of the important role of storms in supporting sub-Antarctic blooms.
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Project Name/Number: Space borne and ground based lidars
Discipline: Astronomy , Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: L. SHIKWAMBANA
Main Activity/ Remarks: The study explores the systematic comparison of different analyses of satellite-retrieved extinction profile based on the satellite - measurements with those derived from ground based Lidar. Also compared is the Lidar-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) with passive sensor derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite data are used as these comparisons and that is a bit complex because spatial and temporal coincident data for clear sky conditions are needed for its comparisons to other Lidar data. Although limitation of the number of coincident dataset and expected errors are unknown, the satellite based aerosol extinction coefficients agree to those measured by ground-based Lidar within 0.02km-1. The two different satellite-derived AODs differ by 30% in comparison to the average of the coincident.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Sprite over South Africa
Discipline: Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: D.C. MASHAO
Main Activity/ Remarks: Sprites are a middle atmosphere gas discharge phenomenon powered by large positive cloud-to-ground lightning strikes which have an average peak value of ~74 kA. Sprites appear in different forms, such as carrot, jellyfish, column or disk-shaped, typically in the height range ~40-90 km. Sprites are part of the global electric circuit. Lightning strikes and sprites produce unique Very Low Frequency (VLF) and Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) radio wave signatures that can be detected remotely on the ground. South Africa has large convective thunderstorms typically in January and February of every year. Sprites were recorded for the first time in January 2016 from Sutherland using a night-vision TV camera from SANSA's Optical Space Research laboratory. Lightning strength, time and position data is obtained from the SA Weather Service and may also be tracked in real time using the World Wide Lightning Locating Network (WWLLN). The aim of this research is to characterize the maximum altitude of sprites as a function of the lightning magnitude. Dual-camera observations, for example from Sutherland and Carnarvon in the Northern Cape, using night-vision TV cameras will be used to simultaneously record the sprites from two separated locations. The cameras' spatial pointing geometry was calibrated using stars. The algorithm for distance and height regulation in spherical coordinates (latitude, longitude, altitude) was developed. The data from 2016 Sprites campaign was processed and we found that the average maximum altitude, and altitude of maximum brightness, of sprites is approximately 85 and 69 km, respectively.
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Project Name/Number: Status and future of the SANAE neutron monitor
Discipline: Astronomy , Atmospheric sciences , Astrophysics , Atomic/molecular physics
Principal Investigator: R.D. STRAUSS
Main Activity/ Remarks: Thisstudyisaugmentedbyobservationsofeightotherneutronmonitors.During2009,solar activity parameters were significantly different from previous solar minima: The sun was much quieter, and heliospheric magnetic field was more than 20% weaker than during other recent minima. Both of these parameters imply a higher cosmic ray diffusion coefficient, which provides a natural explanation for both the higher galactic cosmic ray intensities that were observed and the absence of such an effect for anomalous cosmic rays.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Mar 2020
Areas of Operation
Project Name/Number: Surfing white waves: impacts of a severe storm on the winter marginal ice zone in the Southern Ocean
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences , Oceanography
Principal Investigator: M. VICHI
Main Activity/ Remarks: The winter marginal ice zone (MIZ) in the Southern Ocean is one of the least explored regions of the world ocean, where synoptic weather, sea-ice and oceanic processes are more tightly interlinked. Remote sensing observations have revealed the large variability of the Southern Ocean sea ice over the past 20 years, and the increased spatial resolution of sensors now allow to capture synoptic patterns in the ice edge. The actual reliability of these data is however not known because of the very few in situ observations particularly during the winter period. This contribution reports on a process study conducted in July 2017 in the Indian Ocean sector, aimed at studying the winter MIZ, the relation with met-ocean conditions and how they impact navigation performances. The response of the MIZ to a large-scale storm was documented by means of seaice observations, ice-drift buoys, wave cameras and the ship-response to vibrations. The sea ice was composed of pancakes of varying dimensions that did not show compaction for more than 150 km into the MIZ. The preliminary results hint at a coherent large-scale response of the pancake ice field to wind and swell, with 7 m significant wave height and drifts of up to 0.8 m/s, more typical to brash ice conditions rather than the observed semi-consolidated surface. The results are analysed in conjunction with atmospheric reanalyses data and ocean forecasting models to provide insights on the process dynamics and improve future polar predictions in the southern hemisphere.
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Project Name/Number: The Ionospheric response to CME and CIR-driven storms
Discipline:
Principal Investigator: T.M. MATAMBA
Main Activity/ Remarks: The response of the ionosphere to Coronal Mass Ejection (CME)- and Corotating Interaction Region (CIR)-driven storms that occurred during the solar cycle 24 (2008-2017) will be presented. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Total Electron Content (TEC) and critical frequency of F2 layer from the ionosonde were used to study ionospheric responses. Analysis has shown that ionospheric changes during disturbed conditions could be due to a number of dynamic and electrodynamic processes. Some physical mechanisms responsible for ionospheric storm effects will be discussed.
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Project Name/Number: Tracking the evolution of rotating plasma features in Saturn’s magnetosphere using auroral imagery from Cassini
Discipline: Astronomy , Astrophysics , Atmospheric sciences
Principal Investigator: J. KINRADE
Main Activity/ Remarks: This study presents imagery from two instruments onboard the Cassini satellite that provide a picture of global magnetospheric dynamics. Firstly, the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) captures Saturn’s most intense UV auroral emissions, which are the optical, ionospheric fingerprint of hot plasma in the magnetosphere. Secondly, a picture of the magnetosphere’s hot plasma population is possible through imaging of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) using the Cassini Ion-Neutral Camera (INCA). The ultimate fate of the injected hot plasma is currently unknown, and the long lifetimes of rotating ENA flux regions once they reach the inner magnetosphere remains puzzling. By tracking the auroral features and hot plasma in the magnetosphere together following injection events, we profile the magnetospheric dynamics from ‘source to sink’ during opportune periods of dual observation, and try to answer some of these open questions. Early results indicate that it may be possible to locate Saturn’s ‘plasmapause’ by tracking transient auroral features via magnetospheric mapping.
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Operating Period: From:  01 Oct 2017   To:  31 Oct 2020
Areas of Operation

Project Name/Number: Using the nitrogen isotopes to understand the past and present polar ocean and atmosphere: a plan for research capacity development and student training
Discipline: Earth and atmospheric sciences - other, Biochemistry
Principal Investigator: S.E. FAWCETT
Main Activity/ Remarks: Studies of the nitrogen (N) cycle are essential for understanding the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. While not the primary limiting nutrient in much of the Southern Ocean, N nonetheless exerts a dominant control on Antarctic productivity and CO2 drawdown as it is required universally by phytoplankton. Additionally, N emissions from the surface ocean to the atmosphere impact climate through new particle formation and by neutralizing atmospheric acidity. N has two stable isotopes, the natural abundance distributions of which provide an integrated view of biogeochemical and physical processes that are highly variable in time and space. The denitrifier-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) method can be used to measure the N isotopes of almost all N species, revolutionising N cycle studies since its development in 2001. It is now the global standard for N isotope research, facilitating the analysis of samples 100-1000 times smaller than conventional techniques allow and permitting the simultaneous analysis of the oxygen (O) isotopes of nitrate. Despite international expectations that most N cycle questions will be addressed using the denitrifier-IRMS method, it has yet to be implemented in any African laboratory. Here, we describe our efforts to develop it in South Africa and discuss its utility for Antarctic science. For example, nitrate N and O isotopes can be used to quantify seasonal nitrate drawdown (i.e., net community production) and disentangle overlapping N cycle processes that complicate estimates of CO2 removal; nutritional preferences of important phytoplankton taxa can be deduced from the N isotopes of organic biomass; the hypothesis that more complete Southern Ocean macronutrient consumption drove the ice-age atmospheric CO2 decline can be tested using the N isotopes of sedimentary microfossils; the N and O isotopes of atmospheric nitrate can be used to distinguish NOx sources and preindustrial oxidant chemistry, while atmospheric ammonium isotopes can be used to trace marine ammonia emissions and their impact on new particle formation.
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Project Name/Number: Where is the Southern Ocean Carbon Cycle going in the 21st Century? Seven years of learning from SOCCO and international research
Discipline: Atmospheric sciences , Biochemistry , Earth and atmospheric sciences - other
Principal Investigator: Pedro M.S. Monteiro,
Main Activity/ Remarks: One of scientific grand challenges to global climate for the balance of the 21st century are the projected changes to the feedbacks between ocean and terrestrial carbon reservoirs and climate (WCRP, 2017). The Southern Ocean is a major contributor to this challenge. It already accounts for 50% of the CO2 uptake and 75% of the heat uptake by the ocean and accounts for most of the uncertainty in global estimates of air-sea fluxes. The scientific challenge is how will this main driver of global carbon budgets change in the coming decades and what does our learning of its contemporary dynamics help us anticipate the 21st century trajectory of carbon fluxes and storage in the Southern Ocean? The major insight of the past 7 years from global ocean carbon science was that the carbon uptake by the SO has a decadal mode with very large amplitude of 0.6 -1Pgy-1. This is large enough to influence the long-term trend and the impact of mitigation measures. However, presently we neither understand the drivers nor do earth system models have ability to simulate the interannual – decadal variability of CO2 fluxes in the SO. Although global models agree on the mean annual fluxes they diverge on the seasonal cycle of the fluxes of CO2. This points to mechanistic differences that can influence the climate forcing sensitivity of the internal variability and trends. Here we examine how SOCCO research is contributing to these problems in three main ways: firstly, by taking a highresolution approach to develop new observational product constraints to the interannual variability of the seasonal cycle of CO2 fluxes; secondly, by using the seasonal mode to advance the understanding for the mechanisms behind carbon biases in CMIP5 models and thirdly, by examining the role of fine scale dynamics in understanding the climate sensitivity of CO2 fluxes as well as the biological carbon export fluxes. We then propose how this learning will help us contribute to the global challenge of improving the understanding and projections of the role of the Southern Ocean in global climate in the future.
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Station Report
Operational Information - National Expeditions - Stations
Name: SANAE IV
Type: Wintering
Location:
Site Name: SANAE IV   Lat: 71°40´25´´S   Long: 2°49´43´´W  
Maximum Population: 80
Medical Facilities: Medical facilities include a Docter, Surgery, 3 bed hospital and dental facilities.
Remarks / Description: South-African research station opened 1997. Original SANAE Station opened 1962. SANAE IV opened 1997 at a new location, 200km South of SANAE I to III.
Name: SANAE IV
Type: Wintering
Location:
Site Name: SANAE IV   Lat: 71°40´25´´S   Long: 2°49´43´´W  
Maximum Population: 80
Medical Facilities: Medical facilities include a Docter, Surgery, 3 bed hospital and dental facilities.
Remarks / Description: South-African research station opened 1997. Original SANAE Station opened 1962. SANAE IV opened 1997 at a new location, 200km South of SANAE I to III.

Vessels Report
Aircrat Report
Research Rockets Report
Military
Vessel-Based Report
Operational Information - Non Governmental Expeditions - Vessel-Based Operations
No new information have been provided during the reported period.

Land-Based Operations
Operational Information - Non Governmental Expeditions - Land-Based Operations
Expedition Name: Atka Bay Penguin Colony 
Method of transportation to/within/from Antarctica: Air / Vehicle
Activities:
Number of Participants: 20
Date begin: 17 Sep 2018
Date end: 31 Jan 2019
Number of personnel: 12
Operator:
Name: The Antarctic Company (TAC)
Contact Address: P.O. Box 16213, Vlaeberg, Cape Town, 8001, South Africa
Email Address: info@antarctic-company.com
Website Address: www.antarctic-company.com
Remarks: 2 groups of 6 people to spend no more than 1 - 2 hours
Location of Activities
Atka Bay
Routes:
Expedition Name: Crown Bay Penguin Colony 
Method of transportation to/within/from Antarctica: Air / Vehicle
Activities:
Number of Participants: 1
Date begin: 17 Sep 2018
Date end: 31 Jan 2019
Number of personnel: 1
Operator:
Name: Antarctic Logistics Company International
Contact Address: 97 Keerom Street, Cape Town, South Africa, 8001
Email Address: vasily@alci.co.za
Website Address: www.alci.co.za
Remarks: Scoping activity for future, and only involved a once off visit by only person
Location of Activities
Routes:

Expedition Name: FD 83 Fuel Depot Camp 
Method of transportation to/within/from Antarctica: Air / Vehicle
Activities: Aircraft Flight, Aircraft Landing, Camping, Temporary refueling / summer camp facility at FD 83
Number of Participants: 5
Date begin: 01 Nov 2018
Date end: 05 Mar 2019
Number of personnel: 5
Operator:
Name: Antarctic Logistics Company International
Contact Address: 97 Keerom Street, Cape Town, South Africa, 8001
Email Address: vasily@alci.co.za
Website Address: www.alci.co.za
Remarks: The Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE) of the activity titled “Fuel Depot 83 Camp” showed that the planned activity is in correspondence with the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty, Recommendations and Measures of ATCMs, principles of the Protocol on Environmental Protection (Annex 1. “Environmental Impact Assessment” and Annex 3 “Waste Disposal and Waste Management”). The type of activity under consideration has no more than a minor or transitory impact on the Antarctic environment and associated ecosystems. The declared activity can be carried out without any additional EIA procedures. All the impacts are deemed to be minor and transitory.
Location of Activities
Routes:
Expedition Name: World Marathon Challenge 
Method of transportation to/within/from Antarctica: Air/Air
Activities: Aircraft Flight, Anchoring Only, Run Marathon on runway
Number of Participants: 66
Date begin: 31 Jan 2019
Date end: 01 Feb 2019
Number of personnel: 60
Operator:
Name: The Antarctic Company (TAC)
Contact Address: P.O. Box 16213, Vlaeberg, Cape Town, 8001, South Africa
Email Address: info@antarctic-company.com
Website Address: www.antarctic-company.com
Remarks:
Location of Activities
Novo runway
Routes: Confined to runway surface.

Denial of Authorizations
Aircrat Report
Compliance with the Protocol Report
Environmental Information - Compliance with the Protocol
No new measures have been adopted during the reported period.

Contingency Plans Report
Environmental Impact Assessment: Procedures Report
Environmental Information - Environmental Impact Assessment (Procedures)
No new procedures were established during this reporting period.

Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Environmental Information - Environmental Impact Assessment (IEE/CEE List - Annex I)
Type: IEE
Title: Initial Environmental Evaluation (IEE): Non-Government Organization’s (NGO’s) FD 83 Fuel Depot Camp
Organization(s) responsible: The Antarctic Company (TAC)
Activity: Continued establishment and operation of temporary refueling / summer camp facility at FD 83
Topics: - Construction / operation of facilities
- Field camp
- Non Governmental Expedition
- Oil management / salvage
Locations: Site name: FD 83 is situated at coordinates 83.24°S, 20.32°E
Latitude: 83º 24´ 00´´ S
Latitude: 20º 32´ 00´´ E
Period/length of the activity: 24 days (22 Nov - 15 Dec 2018)
Decision/Comment: Proceed - No more than a minor or transitory impact

Environmental Impact Assessment - Follow-up Activities Report
Conservation of Fauna and Flora Report
Waste Management Plans Report
Waste Management Inventory of Past Activities Report
Prevention of Marine Pollution: Measures Report
Environmental Information - Prevention of Marine Pollution
No new measures have been adopted during the reported period.

Area Protection and Management: Measures Report
Environmental Information - Area Protection and Management (Measures)
No new measures have been adopted during the reported period.

Area Protection and Management: Permit, Visit and Activities Report
Environmental Information - Area Protection and Management (Permit, Visit and Activities)
No new information have been provided during the reported period.

Area Protection and Management: Change or Damage Report
Environmental Information - Area Protection and Management (Change or Damage)
No change or damage was observed during this reporting period.

General Report